The United Nations has closely monitored and supported the regional peace initiative under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). Mr. Mohamed Sahnoun, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, and other senior officials represented the United Nations at the IGAD summit meetings and consulted with governments and regional organizations to support the peace process. They also participated in the meetings of the IGAD Partners Forum, made up of donor countries and organizations that support the IGAD peace process and help the regional organization improve its capacity in several areas. A united opposition will also have to abandon the objective of overthrowing the government by force. This is not an intelligent goal, nor even practical. Moreover, the transformation by armed power has proved catastrophic in many countries and often leads to chaos or a new autocracy rather than to democracy. Better a negotiation. However, abandoning the objective of armed overthrow is the most difficult for armed groups frustrated by false peace proposals or broken political promises. But here, too, there is a precedent for compromise. Nelson Mandela was cautious both in his constituency, which watched heavily from the armed struggle, and the prospects for successful negotiations, when he responded to the De Klerk government`s demands to abandon „armed struggle“ as a precondition for negotiation. His response was to „suspend“ the armed struggle as long as credible negotiations for democracy were present. De Klerk was smart enough to accept this compromise.

After a while, when the negotiations proved successful, the armed struggle became irrelevant. It will be more difficult to achieve in Sudan, but that is the direction the negotiations should be taking. The peace process continued amid repeated violations of the ceasefire provisions of the agreement. The parties supported the integration of other armed groups into existing military structures and the creation of functional MOCs. The implementation of Joint Integrated Unites training to provide a ceasefire was 18 months behind schedule. The peace process was supported by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and iGAD-Partners, a consortium of donors. On 14 May, clashes broke out in the town of Abyei between the SPLM and the SAF, which lasted two days. The fighting killed about 90 people and destroyed much of the city.3 After the clashes, it is estimated that 25,000 people fled the city.4 Both sides agreed on a roadmap calling for an immediate ceasefire and the withdrawal of other armed groups from Abyei.5 The SPLM is believed to be responsible for the attack in Abyei. The SAF accused the SPLM of bringing 3,000 fully armed troops from the east to the Akyec and Majok area for abyei.

The presence of SPLM forces allowed the 31st Infantry Brigade to remain in the area.6 An immediate meeting of the Political Ceasefire Committee took place after the clashes. In August 2007, some 85,000 displaced persons and refugees, with the assistance of the United Nations, returned to their communities, with the assistance of the United Nations, under the joint plan agreed between national states and southern states and the United Nations. The estimated number of internally displaced persons actually increased in 2007 to 5,800,000.3 However, this does not indicate that no effort has been made to return internally displaced persons.