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The 599-page withdrawal agreement covers the following main areas: [16] 1. The „common provisions“ part of the agreement (Articles 1 to 8) first include provisions relating to the implementation, application and interpretation of the agreement. The United Kingdom has similar agreements with the EEA-EFTA states (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and Switzerland. Read: In addition to the transitional period, the withdrawal agreement also governs a number of other issues that need to be addressed due to the UK`s withdrawal. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement[10] the largest vote against the British government in history. [31] The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons. [32] A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons. [34] [35] [36] An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of „substantial amendments,“ so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.

[37] EU and UK negotiators have reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the future EU-UK relationship on 23 March 2018. The withdrawal agreement consists of 185 articles, three protocols and nine annexes. The agreement is divided into six parts. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the „backstop“) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a „hard“ border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed. [19] Finland is represented at the European Council by the Prime Minister and the General Affairs Council by the Minister for European Affairs. In addition, an ad hoc group on Article 50, made up of experts from the Member States, has been set up to assist the Council in the withdrawal negotiations.